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  Parasayan et al 2024, Late Neolithic collective burial reveals admixture_France
Posted by: rmstevens2 - 1 hour ago - Forum: Ancient (aDNA) - Replies (1)

Take a look at this one and comment. 

Late Neolithic collective burial reveals admixture dynamics during the third millennium BCE and the shaping of the European genome

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  Code for fst distances on qpadm
Posted by: Genetics189291 - 7 hours ago - Forum: Inquiries Corner - Replies (1)

Hi can someone remind me what the code was for admixtools2 to do fst distances 

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  M46 is branch of mtDNA, uniting Tibet & coast near Andamans, that is, mtDNA M13'46'61
Posted by: CLTVTE - 06-20-2024, 10:36 PM - Forum: M - No Replies

4.2.7 Haplogroup M46
”M46 is an ancient haplogroup, dates to ~52.6 ka (Figure 52) and is divided into two subclades M46a (dates to ~2.7 ka) and M46b (dates to ~16 ka). M46 is restricted to the MSEA region: M46a is seen in Thailand (Dancause et al., 2009; Pradutkanchana and Kimura 2010) and Myanmar (Li et al., 2015), while M46b is found in Cambodia (Zhang et al., 2013) and Myanmar (this study). the low number samples within this rare haplogroup suggests clearly a heavy drift that maybe happen because the population subdivision in MSEA especially in Thailand.”
 
In "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago", just one minority Fujianese from a hilly hinterland of the northern coast  (Fujian Province, China) and one “more indigenous” Cambodia-shifted Thailand’s individual, who carried a mutaton, related to mtDNA M46, formed a cline with Ikawazu Jomon. The age 52600 years ago (the partition of mtDNA M46 branches) is slightly older than the age of ca.50000 years ago, which is the age of the separation of the Andaman Islands’ branch of yDNA D-M174 (located less than 150 km off Myanmar’s coast) and the branch, named yDNA D-M64 (which is maximized in the Ainu population of the Hokkaido Island and was claimed to be present in the rarest indigenous Ainu individual, living outside Japan).However, one should caution that the different sort of a small Jomonese affinity of the Ami and Atayal Austronesians of Taiwan near Fujian (for example, in Gakuhari et al, 2020)  likely appeared due to the fact that the Late Neolithic ancient Xitoucun population, which influenced the Taiwanese population, had a certain Jomon affinity in some of its members, and the late lineage of migrants (Korea-related mtDNA A5) clustered with Late Neolithic Xitoucun in "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago". Such late migrations via Korea and backmigrations to Korea and Japan should also explain the appearance of yDNA D-M64 population-related component in one of deeply diverged ancient Taiwanese individuals in "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago", which means that a backmigration probably brought such a deeply diverged Taiwanese ancestry to Korea and Japan starting from the Late Neolithic period, while yDNA NO populations were not related to such deeply diverged ancestry from Taiwan, which inadvertently calls to one’s mind the existence of carriers of fossil jaws (Penghu 1) belonging to an extinct hominin species of the genus Homo from Taiwan (“local Denisovan”-related), etc.
 
Interestingly, mtDNA M46 also carries the extremely widely distributed mutation T146C!, consequently, one might similarly dream that his ancient population was at its minimum a substratum to other populations of Asia and the world, which cannot be justified in such a way.
 
Other branches of yDNA D-M174 also separated ca. 50000 years ago.
 
mtDNA M13a branch of mtDNA M13’46’61 is associated with the populations, deriving from of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, but mtDNA M13 as a whole should have had the basal mtDNA M13* branch, which separated to Siberia ca.50000 years ago, according to “Maternal genetic history of ancient Tibetans over the past 4000 years”.
 
Accroding to “Ancient Mitogenomes Reveal the Origins and Genetic Structure of the Neolithic Shimao Population in Northern China”, mtDNA M61 (another branch of mtDNA M13’46’61) is present in 16% of the Lachungpa population of India’s Sikkim, who should speak the Denjongke language of Sikkim. The Dejongke language was studied in Japan, because this language has a phonetic feature of “breathy voice”, which is also in some West African languages and Tsumkwe Juʼhoan, one of languages of the putative Khoisan language family (Khoikhoi+San). However, the rare mtDNA M61 population was not related to yDNA K2a-related populations, which include speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages from China.

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  Dedicated Ancient North Eurasian discussion thread
Posted by: Norfern-Ostrobothnian - 06-20-2024, 10:13 PM - Forum: Ancient (aDNA) - Replies (15)

A thread to discuss Ancient North Eurasians and related cultures, their formation, structure, and it's descendants. 

The Ancient North Eurasian samples we have:

Yana1 and Yana2 30233-29582 cal BCE from Yana RHS , Also called Ancient North Siberian
MA1 22621-22171 cal BCE from Mal'Ta, associated with Mal'Ta Buret' culture
AfontovaGora2 15001-14640 cal BCE and AfontovaGora3 16257-15905 cal BCE from Afrontova Gora.
DCP1 22250-21880 cal BCE from Denisova Cave, sequenced from a deer pendant.

Further associated groups include the Eastern Hunter-Gatherers in Eastern Europe from the Epipaleolithic to the Neolithic, Hissar Neolithic culture in Tajikistan, West Siberian Hunter-Gatherers in Mesolithic Siberia and the ancestors of modern day Native Americans. 

Literature:
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12736
The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1279-z
The genetic history of Ice Age Europe
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature17993
Ancient human DNA recovered from a Palaeolithic pendant
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-023-06035-2
Palaeogenomics of Upper Palaeolithic to Neolithic European hunter-gatherers
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-023-05726-0
The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.aat7487
Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature16152

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  I2 in EEF ?
Posted by: Capsian20 - 06-20-2024, 08:51 PM - Forum: I2-M438 - Replies (1)

Hello guys
Is interesting i was have been seen in this subclade I-BY160929 there samples old from Turkey and Ukraine and Greece and Bulgaria
this subclade is formed since 6814 B.C and ancient samples this subclade found in Anatolia and Balkan
but for admixture this samples had more half to full ancestry EEF
is this subclade is back to Europe with migration EEF ?
   

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  Historical Ancestry report from 24Genetics
Posted by: Mulay 'Abdullah - 06-20-2024, 02:55 PM - Forum: Other - Replies (3)

[Image: Capture-d-cran-2024-06-20-162243.png]

Link:  Historical Ancestry: an emotional journey to the past - 24Genetics



Historical Ancestry: an emotional journey to the past


Discover your deepest roots with the historical ancestry report from 24Genetics.

Imagine being able to travel back in time, not just to learn about the world’s history, but to uncover how your own ancestors contributed to shaping it. That’s precisely what we offer with our innovative historical ancestry test. This analysis isn’t just a genetic examination; it’s an open door to living history, an emotional connection with those who came before you.



A personal journey to the heart of History
The 24Genetics historical ancestry test invites you on a personal and thrilling journey through the ages. By tracing your origins across eight historical periods, from prehistory to the Middle Ages, this test intimately connects you with the cultures and civilizations that are part of your genetic legacy. It’s a unique exploration that allows you to walk in your ancestors’ footsteps, discovering their worlds, their struggles, and their triumphs.



Discover the civilizations in your DNA
The 24Genetics report is an exciting chronicle of your genetic roots. By highlighting the three ancestral cultures with which you have the greatest genetic affinity, the test offers a detailed map of your origins, revealing how your ancestors lived, moved, and mixed in the vast tapestry of human history.

This test goes beyond science; it’s an emotional journey to your roots. By uncovering the civilizations and cultures of your ancestors, you not only better understand your own identity but also feel a deeper, more personal connection to history. It’s an experience that transforms the way you see the world and yourself.

Our historical ancestry test is not just a genetic analysis; it’s an invitation to an emotional journey to your origins. By unraveling the secrets of your DNA, you connect with your ancestors, but also with the civilizations that have shaped the world we live in. It’s a unique opportunity to embrace your heritage and celebrate the rich tapestry of human history that runs through your veins.



Science, the basis of our methodology
Want to know more? Here’s a bit of science…

Ancestry, in basic terms, can be defined as everything our ancestors have inherited over time and has reached us today, that is, what connects us with the past and its people. However, ancestry is a much broader concept that encompasses multiple meanings, knowledge, and interpretations. It is of great importance in cultural, religious, or even political aspects, and can significantly influence personal and collective identities. In genetics, these terms have a much more precise definition: your ancestors are the people you are biologically related to, and ancestry refers to the details about these individuals and their genetic connections to you. This reflects how human populations have been moving, connecting, and mixing over time and geography to reach us today. This journey forms our ancestry. Therefore, the study of ancestry can be understood as a great synergy between different areas of knowledge, allowing us to explain the inheritance of our ancestors. For example, archaeology, history, linguistics, and genetics are major pillars in explaining ancestry and being able to contextualize it. From genetics, we can see indications of mixing between populations, but we need knowledge from other areas to shape that result and understand why.

With historical ancestry, what academics call “ancient ancestry”, we refer to populations or individuals who lived in a distant past, often spanning even tens of thousands of years. This involves analyzing current genetic markers and ancient human remains, to understand migratory patterns, genetic diversity, and relationships between ancient populations and today’s humans. The study of historical ancestry allows scientists to better understand the historical migrations and interactions of human groups, as well as the development of certain genetic, social, and cultural traits over time. All of this is what allows us to carry out your historical ancestry analysis.

An important factor to consider when conducting such an analysis is the reference database with which we can compare a person to study their ancestry. This reference must be as large and diverse as possible, including genetic samples from a wide variety of historical periods and geographic origins, to cover the entire human history and its genetic diversity. However, this is much more complicated than it seems, as samples are carefully obtained from the best-preserved archaeological sites, to ensure the highest quality of genetic material to be analyzed. Thus, the creation of these references is limited by the availability of such biological materials. These samples, such as bones or teeth, must be in good condition for DNA to be extracted and analyzed. For this to happen, they must have been maintained over thousands of years in very specific environmental conditions, especially low temperatures and low humidity. That’s why some geographical areas have scarce fossil records compared to others. In addition, contextual information about the archaeological site is crucial for correctly interpreting genetic data. Elements such as remains of materials, ornaments, clothing, tools, and everyday utensils can provide valuable clues about the ethnic group or cultural current to which the individuals may have belonged. This information helps scientists to better understand the historical and cultural context of ancient populations, allowing for a more accurate interpretation of ancestry and genetic relationships over time.

All these samples must undergo a strict treatment protocol in the laboratory to be used. On the one hand, it is necessary to date the samples to know to which historical period they belong. In addition to taking into account the information that can be extracted from the observation of the archaeological site, the samples are subjected in the laboratory to radiocarbon dating or carbon-14, the most used technique to determine the age of archaeological remains. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope present in organic matter that “disintegrates” over time. By knowing its rate of disintegration, the age of the organism to which the archaeological remains belong can be calculated. On the other hand, given the damage that the extracted genetic material may present due to its age, it goes through a thorough quality control in which ancient DNA is obtained, which is often fragmented and degraded, and proceeds to its sequencing with advanced Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques.

At 24Genetics, applying the above, we have developed the historical ancestry test, with which we achieve a much closer connection between your genetics and the past, being able to trace your genetic history from a much greater depth than other companies in the market. This advanced analysis reveals our connections with the past and also demonstrates how modern science can unravel the mysteries of our genetic heritage.



Our Ancestry Test, Step by Step
Now let’s explore in detail how this test is performed, from the collection of DNA samples to the comparison with sequenced archaeological remains.

Collection and Analysis of DNA Samples
Saliva kits and raw data: the process begins with the collection of DNA samples from clients, either through saliva kits received from clients by mail or by uploading their raw genetic data (raw data).

Sample processing: once received, saliva samples are processed in specialized laboratories. DNA is extracted and genotyping is carried out, using precise molecular biology techniques to isolate, purify, and analyze genetic material. All samples go through multiple steps of strict quality control to ensure that they are suitable for analysis and to extract optimal results from them.

Comparison with the DNA of Our Clients
Comparative genetic analysis: your DNA is compared with our historical genetic database. This database includes genetic information from thousands of samples extracted from archaeological remains throughout 8 historical periods spanning more than 40,000 years of human history, from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. In addition, we have hundreds of scientific articles and bibliographic references that give solidity, robustness, and support to our methodology and analysis. We divide the analysis into 8 historical periods to see in detail what genetic similarities we find with the population groups of that stage. If they were combined into a single analysis, the oldest ancestry signals could be diluted in the analysis. However, by using them in a specific study, these data take on the importance they deserve. Our analysis has been divided into eight historical stages: Upper Paleolithic (before 10,000 BC) Mesolithic (from 10,000 to 5,000 BC) Neolithic (from 5,000 to 3,000 BC) Metal Age (from 3,000 to 1,300 BC) Ancient Age (from 1,300 to 500 BC) Classical Antiquity (from 500 BC to 500 AD) High Middle Ages (from 500 to 1,000 AD) Full Middle Ages (from 1,000 to 1,300 AD)

These stages are determined taking into account the beginning of various socio-economic and cultural activities, varying according to the different geographical regions of the world. We have sought the most accurate approximation to global geographic diversity. Depending on the particular geographic region, these stages may have begun or ended earlier or later than the time periods established in our classification.

Algorithms and Statistical Models:
Sophisticated algorithms and statistical models are used to interpret the genetic data. These algorithms can identify specific genetic markers and establish correlations between current DNA and archaeological samples. During the analysis, a comparison of genetic similarities and differences between your DNA and the reference is conducted, establishing the probability of sharing common ancestors with various groups. This is done by comparing your genetic patterns with those of the reference groups. The more similar they are, the higher the likelihood of shared ancestry.

Interpretation of Results and Connection with History
Detailed Report: The result is a comprehensive report that highlights a person’s current genetic connections with various cultures and civilizations throughout history.

Historical and Genetic Perspective:
The report not only provides information about geographical and cultural ancestry but also offers insight into how migrations and the mixing of populations throughout history have influenced your current genome. The result is given in the form of a percentage, reflecting the closeness to your genetics and, therefore, a greater relationship with your ancestors. This means that, for the groups included in our reference, it’s very likely that your ancestors were closely linked to those specific population groups, or with genetic mixtures that included those populations. It’s not a static snapshot of genetic mixing at a given moment, but the result of a continuous and complex process of population mixing over time. These populations have been joining and diversifying due to population movements, giving rise to the current populations and ethnicities. These signals are imprinted in our DNA and are reflected in the results of our analyses, covering from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages, and more recent periods in the sections of geographical and ethnic ancestry of our report.

Historical Ancestry Section of the 24Genetics Ancestor Test:
This section is a fascinating fusion of genomics and archaeology, providing a unique window into the past. This detailed and scientifically rigorous analysis connects us with our ancestors in an emotional and personal way and gives us a deep understanding of how civilizations and cultures of the past have contributed to our genetic diversity. Through this test, we offer you a glimpse into the history of humanity, and we celebrate the incredible genetic journey that each of us has traveled.



Our Ancestry Test:
It’s not just a genetic analysis; it’s an exhaustive and multifaceted exploration of our heritage. Through its various sections, which include Geographical Ancestry, Ethnic Ancestry, Historical Ancestry, Maternal and Paternal Haplogroups, and Neanderthal DNA, this test offers the most complete and holistic view that current science can provide about who we are and where we come from.


Written by Dr. André Flores Bello
Geneticist

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  Linguistic and cultural theories, autosomal haplogroup data -- population migration
Posted by: Olav - 06-19-2024, 02:37 PM - Forum: R1b-L21 - No Replies

I'm want to write a bit on Elder Futhark, as there are aspects here, perhaps more significant than Ragnarök as poetry around generally preferred practices.
Like picking a guy to argue and take confrontations in front of, and call him Forseti/President; required to not take sides.

Looking at population migrations, you can't assume that culture spreading like a wildfire affects autosomal and haplogroups.
If so, the world would be entirely Italian and Greek.

Genes turned off or on may create intermarrying conflicts between neighbours not shared with more distant groups.
New genes can spread like wildfire, so can disease immunity.
Disease looks like genocide, while population migrations can be swift or involve many people.

There is resillience, speed and bandwidth.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-0.../figures/3
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Norway
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petty_kingdoms_of_Norway
https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil:Norse_...sm_map.png

Now, make up your own mind if change in languages, religion, unification wars and what not have changed anything major?

As for Norse, lets imagine a time where Reindeer herders euqled food safety.
And communication was needed improved, so from necessity someone made Elder Futhark.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elder_Futhark

You sit down under a gapahuk and a fire (The Revenant, when DiCaprio is mended from wounds).
ᚢ u /u(ː)/ ?*ūruz "aurochs", Wild ox (or *ûram "water/slag"?)

"uuuuh".


ᚲ k © /k/ ?*kaunan "ulcer"? (or *kenaz "torch"?)

"k"

ᛁ i /i(ː)/ *īsaz "ice"

"I"

ᛒ b /b/ *berkanan "birch"

"b"

Looking at the symbolic associations.

"Brrr"

ᚱ r /r/ *raidō "ride, journey"

"throw log on fire"

ᚦ þ /θ/, /ð/ ?*þurisaz "Thurs" (see Jötunn) or *þunraz ("the god Thunraz")

"blow on fire, and hurt, as the hero that does, with tounge in middle of mouth"

ᚠ f /ɸ/, /f/ *fehu "cattle; wealth"

"take half an oats, and ffff blow gently"

ᚨ a /a(ː)/ *ansuz "god"

"half of oats broken, good, eat"

As soon as you have a script, and they come in all forms and shapes, phonetic, symbolic, combinations of it.
Linguistic models are entirely out the window, things just change, while not all may agree on "sound symbolism", "symbolic associations", "conceptual divisions and relations", some kind of literal meaning is likely to orient itself after it.

There is this part where kaunan mean resentment in finnish, origin may be entirely impossible to work out, but there is a high degree of "academic" rather than natural development, so can forget most of these theories as relevant for population migration as entirely disconnected from cultural developments.

On how to teach a language quick, this might be very hard to beat, and an activity in itself to work out all valid accessible angles.
Futhark,
ᚷ g /ɡ/ *gebō "gift"


There is stonehenge, there is scandinavian judges stones and past 10 000 years and before is a black box.
It's clear that something had changed in a big way when stonehenge was started being built with stone instead of wood.
But that may just as well have been fashionable or a consequence of other things.

While there are theories about toxoplasmosis affecting French culture.
Even in modern times, only organised state powers seem to have wide enough influence to have an impact, but marginal at that.
Can't assume negatives as the outcome of anything one doesn't like, or patterns that are suspicious.
Complaining, being concerned, sharing sentiments on good or bad may be more functional in immediate surroundings for your local coherency and different peoples, you and them and wether you fall between or not. Attraction and activity, economies and social contracts towards helpful and helpful but a incoherent and inconsistent mess in-between. And before one know it, it's about personality traits that are aspirational, desired or hard to get enough in the activity.

Disagreeing on who's whom would certainly involve court of law around unifying cultura questions, and showing up to meet those involved.
https://norse-mythology.org/gods-and-cre...ses/njord/
There is no right answer in society, while everyone may have their own psychological preferences and personalities in their own context.
Futhark is an important context, and herding economy was probably taken entirely for granted and seldom discussed.
But none of it matters, and artisan fashions barely telling of interaction.

Taking from external cultural sources, linguistic theories studying in depth similarities and differences, development and speculating around loan words.
Adding breadth and depth to possible origins and autosomal groupings involved in exchanges involved in a culture is imensly useful.

Back to human nature and basic needs, biggest question in elder futhark is,

Quote:Two instances of another early inscription were found on the two Vadstena and Mariedamm bracteates (6th century), showing the division in three ætts, with the positions of ï, p and o, d inverted compared to the Kylver stone:


Namely,
ᛇ ï (æ) /æː/[9] *ī(h)waz "yew-tree"
ᛈ p /p/ ?*perþ- meaning unknown; possibly "pear-tree".

Which symbol should be listed under,
ᚲ k © /k/ ?*kaunan "ulcer"? (or *kenaz "torch"?)

And for,
ᛞ d /d/ *dagaz
ᛟ o /o(ː)/ *ōþila-/*ōþala- "heritage, estate, possession"

Should be under,
ᚷ g /ɡ/ *gebō "gift"
ᚹ w /w/ *wunjō "joy"

Should be able to follow my argument, but maybe of relevans,
ᛉ z /z/ ?*algiz "elk" (or "protection, defence"[10]), upside down?
ᛊ ᛋ s /s/ *sōwilō "sun", maybe, but what about,
ᛗ m /m/ *mannaz "man"

So what is pearshaped and give gifts that are also cancers that butt heads?
Maybe it's important enough, to ᛁ and has a context with ᚲ for ᛈ as not every like their own.

Anything is possible, and necessity is often the mother of invention.
But I think there is too much of this guy and simmilar ideas.
https://www.saamidna.com/

Edited addendum:
I do not suspect that Putin will bring on the table.
https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-Y13200/

That it may have happened that the Arctic would have so much to offer in face of famine, where nothing could be asked for. So a healthy male was asked for by choice of daugther of someone, historically nearby Yamna culture and the split for what is now known as the European R1b branch, R-M269.
While R-L21 might owe survival after Stoegga slide, and yet to be determined scientific and academic discussion towards a high degree of confidence to something simmilar. The one thing that is off the charts here, is how a study of the genetic structure of Norway struggle to see a difference between Arctic Saami and North Korean adoptees. And the point can't be argued if you are R1a and power balance affects you, https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogrou...-DNA.shtml.

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Question R1b-FTG713
Posted by: rmstevens2 - 06-18-2024, 10:51 PM - Forum: R1b general - Replies (18)

Have you all noticed the new block in FTDNA's Block Tree under M269, parallel to L23 and PF7562? It's under the SNP heading R-FTG713.

I can't find anything about it in FTDNA Discover yet, but take a look at M269 in your Block Tree. There are 17 SNPs in the FTG713 block.

It should be interesting to see what FTDNA has on that when it finally shows up in Discover.

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  Illustrative DNA, post your closest result for Modern Ancestry
Posted by: Mulay 'Abdullah - 06-18-2024, 05:04 PM - Forum: Other - No Replies

Post your closest results in 2 and 3 Way for Modern ancestry (Unsupervised Models)



Mine (with Ancestry's coords):

[Image: Capture-d-cran-2024-06-18-184051.png]

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  Illustrative DNA, post your closest result Middle Ages
Posted by: Mulay 'Abdullah - 06-18-2024, 04:58 PM - Forum: Other - Replies (5)

Hi all,
Share your closest results in 2 and 3 Way for the Middle-Ages (Unsupervised Models)



Mine (with Ancestry's coords):

[Image: Capture-d-cran-2024-06-18-185532.png]

[Image: Capture-d-cran-2024-06-18-185609.png]

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