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Stolarek et al: Genetic history of East-Central Europe...
Continuation of Proboard thread https://genarchivist.freeforums.net/thre...ope?page=1 created by Pribislav.

Ireneusz Stolarek, Michal Zenczak, Luiza Handschuh, Anna Juras, Malgorzata Marcinkowska-Swojak, Anna Spinek, Artur Dębski, Marzena Matla, Hanna Kóčka-Krenz, Janusz Piontek, Polish Archaeogenomics Consortium Team & Marek Figlerowicz


The appearance of Slavs in East-Central Europe has been the subject of an over 200-year debate driven by two conflicting hypotheses. The first assumes that Slavs came to the territory of contemporary Poland no earlier than the sixth century CE; the second postulates that they already inhabited this region in the Iron Age (IA). Testing either hypothesis is not trivial given that cremation of the dead was the prevailing custom in Central Europe from the late Bronze Age until the Middle Ages (MA).


To address this problem, we determined the genetic makeup of representatives of the IA Wielbark- and MA Slav-associated cultures from the territory of present-day Poland. The study involved 474 individuals buried in 27 cemeteries. For 197 of them, genome-wide data were obtained. We found close genetic affinities between the IA Wielbark culture-associated individuals and contemporary to them and older northern European populations. Further, we observed that the IA individuals had genetic components which were indispensable to model the MA population.


Ssupplementary materialhttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/...13-9#Sec20

BAM fileshttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB48333
JMcB, Jaska, leonardo like this post
Testing the new forum capabilities.

Here I made the PCA of ancient samples older than 1500 BCE. The samples with Balto-Slavic drift are marked with bubbles that are proportional to the level of BS-drift.
Download the image or open it in a new window and magnify!

[Image: 59Q8ZOf.jpg]
corrigendum, Jaska, paradinet And 7 others like this post
Thanks ph2ter. Sure looks like GAC, or some similar group, had some input into the formation of the B-S drift. Does this tells us something about where this drift occurred? While we can't think of those with B-S drift as homogeneous, it seems like GAC has as much - if not more - influence than the elusive, unknown EHG dna. Trzciniec appears to be that EHG source while the Kisapostag group appears to add the GAC, almost like two groups are present. Also, I don't see a label for CW. Should I assume it it close to the Yamnaya samples?
CW is mostly north and west of Yamnaya but inside the same blob as Yamnaya (you can magnify the map and look by yourself. ).

I don't think that GAC has any special connection to BS-drift. (Yamnaya-GAC cline is marked because most of the Europeans are positioned along it).
BS drift is obviously linked to the population with increased level of the hunter gatherers of East Europe (mostly of WHG kind).
leonardo likes this post
WHG, not EHG?
WHG, not EHG?
(10-02-2023, 12:57 PM)leonardo Wrote: WHG, not EHG?

From PCA it looks mostly WHG, but some smaller amount of EHG is not excluded.
Capsian20 and leonardo like this post
Modern Europeans added:

[Image: xn7Ozvi.jpg]
corrigendum, leonardo, JMcB And 1 others like this post
Kisapostag is a dead end. Modern Balto-Slavs formed from Spiginas2 and Trzciniec - like populations
Radko and lukpl like this post
Do you see any connection with medieval Slavs and Kisopostag? I would assume Balts and most of those with CTS1211 have this more eastern leaning. And we know that admixture changes over time. What about those with Y3120 or M458? Could any of those be more influenced by Kisapostag samples?
(10-02-2023, 01:39 PM)ph2ter Wrote: Kisapostag is a dead end. Modern Balto-Slavs formed from Spiginas2 and Trzciniec - like populations

This is my opinion as well, although I think that groups like Kisapostag are still very interesting in research about Proto-Balto-Slavic populations because are indicative of the broader process which led to their formation.
[Image: msad182f3.jpeg?Expires=1699286615&Signat...RDK6RD3PGA]
Many contemporaneous populations to Bk-II and Bk-III from the British Isles to today's Poland, down to today's Serbia have outliers with a Bk-II–like genomic composition, mostly overlapping with known Kisapostag and Encrusted Pottery contact regions (fig. 3). Interestingly, at the end of the second millennium BCE, many Baltic groups appear to be highly similar to Bk-II, indicating long-term success of this ancestry outside the Carpathian Basin. Notably, in the vicinity of Prague, many pre- and post-Bk-II outliers appear along with the archeological presence of the Kisapostag culture, including the Tollense group, which also originates from the region of Bohemia according to isotopic evidence (Price et al. 2019), suggesting a local reservoir of the population. Whereas the appearance of Bk-II ancestry in the Baltics could be connected to this reservoir, especially in the light of the mobility of Tollense group, the 14C date of Lithuania_LN_o around 2,000 BCE suggests that the population was likely prevalent in nearby unsampled regions of Eastern Europe.
Taking into consideration all of the genetic parallels, their dates, and geographic locations, one plausible scenario is that the EHG characteristic core of Bk-II (which ultimately could be best modeled as Ukraine_EBA by composition) moved northward from the region of today's Eastern Romania, Moldavia, or Western Ukraine, subsequently mixed with FBC- or Globular Amphora culture (GAC)–related populations and then split into two groups: one taking a route to Transdanubia and the other moving further North. These results are highly in par with Mittnik et al. (2018), who suggested population replacement at the end of the second millennium BCE in the Baltic region from a nearby, unsampled region by a population of considerably higher steppe, EEF, and WHG ancestry than the prevailing ones; however, further data are needed from Eastern Europe to affirm this hypothesis.

Interdisciplinary Analyses of Bronze Age Communities from Western Hungary Reveal Complex Population Histories
leonardo likes this post
(10-02-2023, 02:43 PM)leonardo Wrote: Do you see any connection with medieval Slavs and Kisopostag? I would assume Balts and most of those with CTS1211 have this more eastern leaning. And we know that admixture changes over time. What about those with Y3120 or M458? Could any of those be more influenced by Kisapostag samples?

Absolutely impossible that Medieval Slavs were like Kisapostag.
They are on the cline going from Spiginas2 to the south.
Kisapostag is a Bronze Age population without modern successors.
Andar, leonardo, Radko like this post
The successor of Kisapostag being basically Encrusted Pottery, and those were driven from Western Pannonia to North Croatia and along the Danube to Bulgaria were they met their end (last group Garla Mare) when being overformed and finally replaced by incoming Channelled Ware people which formed Vartop on top of the Encrusted Pottery remains.

What's worth to be mentioned however, is that there are high WHG outliers popping up in the Carpathian Basin later too, like one Meziocsat outlier which is both very different from the local Gáva-Kyjatice people and the steppe newcomers. The individual has higher WHG than Encrusted Pottery even and is at that time a complete outlier. It proves that a very WHG-rich population still existed somewhere in the vicinity of the Carpathian basin - like it was picked up in the forest steppe by incoming Cimmerians.

But since its a complete, isolated outlier, we can't say where it came from.
leonardo, Siegmund, Radko And 2 others like this post
Could be that Kisapostag was just creation of population which was artifically similar to later Balto-Salvs from the north, because of partly similar parental components but not all. Like we can have fake SW German (autosomally) from mixing Brit and North Italian for example.
Just plonking this here, as it's slavic related: the Reich lab dated a couple of their BA samples which weren't previously dated, and confirmed that the Y-hg I-L621-CTS10228 found in Yunatsite, Tell Kran, and BA East Romania by C14 methods. 
I'd say most of these groups remained in NE Romania and became entwined with the proto-Slavic expansions.
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