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H-M82 branch influenced by Persian Greek wars
The discovery of H-M82 samples in the Bronze Age (2000-3000BCE) Indus Valley Periphery cities of Shahr-e-Sokhte and Gonur which are within the sphere of ancient Persian Influence was probably shattered when Achaemenid rulers (705-330 b.c.e.) took over these cities and destroyed them and created their own rural form of society and iron based culture. These thriving cities were a urban oasis for many millennia harboring diverse population. Destruction of such huge cities caused these Indus periphery population to move into India and other places until Greek armies took over these ancient cities hundred years later.

"In 520 b.c.e., after Darius had reunited dissident factions in Persia, Darius commissioned a massive trilingual inscription to commemorate his triumph. It still stands today on a cliff at Bisitun, high above the road from Babylon to Ecbatana (now Hamadan, Iran), one of the ancient capitals of Persia. The list of subject provinces at the end includes Gandhara as the easternmost province. The inscription carved to commemorate Darius’s building of a wall around Persepolis in 518 b.c.e. contains Gandhara and a new eastern province, Hindush. This province, whose name reproduces the Persian pronunciation of “Indus” (from which derives the word “Hindu”), must have been acquired sometime between 520 and 518 b.c.e.

A book titled Periplus (voyage around by sea) written by Scylax, a member of Darius’s exploratory expedition down the Indus River, became the foundation for two new genres of Greek writing, geography and ethnography. The book influenced all later Greek historians, including Herodotus, and through them later historical writing. It remained the source for all Greek knowledge about India until the time of Alexander the Great."

The H-M82 branch probably got split into multiple branches during this time of major wars.
[Image: hm82mintree-illus.png]

A look at the minimum spanning tree of the PCA component 1 and 2 of the SNPs of the H-M82 in the FTDNA database shows that there are deep divergences with samples from Turkey, Israel, Arabia, Romani, Kashmir, Gangetic plains, Tamils forming major nodes. The approximate time of divergence is probably 2500 years to 1500 years. These are the time of the Persian and Greek occupation of the cities around Indus Valley. The split of some these ancient individuals into Turkey, Arabia and Israel could be explained by Greek occupation and movement of these people along with the Greek armies during that time. The further split of Romani after the fall of the Greek cities in Medieval times probably caused the groups supporting the Greeks to move into Europe as Romanis.
Salkhit 625 SNP, Otzi 803 SNP, Mik15 798 SNP, RISE493 1335 SNP, I11456 1024 SNP, I7718 980 SNP, I9041 512S
Target: tipirneni:dante
Chebyshev distance: 0.64%
79.0 IRN_SIS_BA2
12.4 ITA_Daunian
8.6 Poland_Viking.SG

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