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Locating Pre Proto Uralic
#16
Ebizur:
Quote:"The bottom line is, Nganasans cannot be "pure-blooded" descendants of Proto-Uralic speakers if all Proto-Uralic-speaking males have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup N-L1026 (or, somewhat more broadly, N-Z1957 [TMRCA 8,050 ybp]). There must either be something wrong with any autosomal analysis that has been taken as grounds for making such a claim of "purity," or the Proto-Uralic-speaking population must have included at least some males belonging to N-P43."

A sidenote:
Well, an autosomal "pure-bloodedness" (which does not concern the Nganasans, according to the qpAdm results by Zeng et al. 2023) can be a very recent phenomenon. Within only 7 generations the portion from one ancestor is (calculatively) less than 1 %, and within 10 generations it is less than 0,1 %. Still, paternal and maternal lineages can go back tens of thousands of years.

And in any case the Nganasans are a deviation, not a rule, even among the Samoyedic populations. 
Hopefully we will find ancient DNA samples of N-P43, so we can see if it appears within the same population as N-L1026 in Europe. There probably were several east-to-west migrations during the metal ages.
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#17
I don't know much about Proto-Uralic, but judging only from PCA it looks to me that Okunev culture is the source of it:

[Image: 9FGayKb.jpg]
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#18
(11-29-2023, 09:30 AM)ph2ter Wrote: I don't know much about Proto-Uralic, but judging only from PCA it looks to me that Okunev culture is the source of it...

Your otherwise fine PCA is apparently somewhat misleading in this case. Cultures with roots in the areas West of Baikal are apparently just too western to fit the bill. Even Yakutia_MN is apparently too western, too much ANE, on a stand alone basis. One of the closest ancient groups vs. Yakutia_LNBA is Xianbei, which is very very eastern.
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#19
(11-29-2023, 03:24 PM)Queequeg Wrote:
(11-29-2023, 09:30 AM)ph2ter Wrote: I don't know much about Proto-Uralic, but judging only from PCA it looks to me that Okunev culture is the source of it...

Your otherwise fine PCA is apparently somewhat misleading in this case. Cultures with roots in the areas West of Baikal are apparently just too western to fit the bill. Even Yakutia_MN is apparently too western, too much ANE, on a stand alone basis. One of the closest ancient groups vs. Yakutia_LNBA is Xianbei, which is very very eastern.

And this fits precisely with the current theories of the origins of  LN Yakutia cultures that point to migrations from the Transbaikal (east of the lake) being the impetus for the formation of new cultures.

My speculation is that these groups ultimately dispersed from the Amur region, where this type of ancestry was found in its highest concentration, and the mass movements of people may have been prompted by the 4.2 kiloyear climate event that dried out huge swathes of northeast Asia.
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#20
(11-29-2023, 03:24 PM)Queequeg Wrote:
(11-29-2023, 09:30 AM)ph2ter Wrote: I don't know much about Proto-Uralic, but judging only from PCA it looks to me that Okunev culture is the source of it...

Your otherwise fine PCA is apparently somewhat misleading in this case. Cultures with roots in the areas West of Baikal are apparently just too western to fit the bill. Even Yakutia_MN is apparently too western, too much ANE, on a stand alone basis. One of the closest ancient groups vs. Yakutia_LNBA is Xianbei, which is very very eastern.

Yes, I didn't take into account that Levanluhta and Hungarian conquerors are very late (Roman to Middle Age times) in respect to Okunevo which is BA. The Finno-Ugric ancestors were further east in BA (probably in Trans-Baikal, Amur region).
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#21
Ph2ter:
Quote:Yes, I didn't take into account that Levanluhta and Hungarian conquerors are very late (Roman to Middle Age times) in respect to Okunevo which is BA. The Finno-Ugric ancestors were further east in BA (probably in Trans-Baikal, Amur region).

It would be preferable to write dates in years, because Bronze Age began at different times at different regions. In Northern Europe it began ca. 1900 BCE, and at that time there were Uralic speakers already far to the west from the Amur Region. Similar ancestry was of course seen in the east, but there it cannot be labeled Uralic. Language is not inherited along genetic ancestry.
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#22
(11-30-2023, 02:12 PM)Jaska Wrote: Ph2ter:
Quote:Yes, I didn't take into account that Levanluhta and Hungarian conquerors are very late (Roman to Middle Age times) in respect to Okunevo which is BA. The Finno-Ugric ancestors were further east in BA (probably in Trans-Baikal, Amur region).

It would be preferable to write dates in years, because Bronze Age began at different times at different regions. In Northern Europe it began ca. 1900 BCE, and at that time there were Uralic speakers already far to the west from the Amur Region. Similar ancestry was of course seen in the east, but there it cannot be labeled Uralic. Language is not inherited along genetic ancestry.

If you looked at the PCA you would see that every sample in its label has a year and the haplos (Group__SampleID_year_Y-DNA|mtDNA).
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#23
(11-30-2023, 03:21 PM)ph2ter Wrote:
(11-30-2023, 02:12 PM)Jaska Wrote: Ph2ter:
Quote:Yes, I didn't take into account that Levanluhta and Hungarian conquerors are very late (Roman to Middle Age times) in respect to Okunevo which is BA. The Finno-Ugric ancestors were further east in BA (probably in Trans-Baikal, Amur region).

It would be preferable to write dates in years, because Bronze Age began at different times at different regions. In Northern Europe it began ca. 1900 BCE, and at that time there were Uralic speakers already far to the west from the Amur Region. Similar ancestry was of course seen in the east, but there it cannot be labeled Uralic. Language is not inherited along genetic ancestry.

If you looked at the PCA you would see that every sample in its label has a year and the haplos (Group__SampleID_year_Y-DNA|mtDNA).

My point actually was that it is absurd to talk about Finno-Ugric ancestors in the Amur Region, when Uralic or Finno-Ugric was never spoken there. (Pre- or Para-Uralic are still within possibilities.)

EDIT: Or if you mean purely genetic ancestors of Uralic populations, the East Siberian populations are no more entitled to that label than are the Yamnaya people, European farmers, and western or eastern hunter-gatherers.
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#24
(11-28-2023, 02:14 AM)Queequeg Wrote: Quoting Helimski again: Uralic-Tungusic  "male", in this case a reindeer bull

"Ostj. Kaz. χ¢ r ‚Rentier-Stier’ und nenz. χora > russ. (Sibirien) хор, хóра
‚самец-производитель в оленьем стаде’; ngan. kurii
ia ‚Rentier-Stier’ (Abl. von kuru <
sam. *korå) > ewenk. (SSTMJa. I: 436) kurejka, kurajka, korejka ‘олень (дикий, самец –
весенне-летнее название)’, s. Steinitz, DEWO 536; Аникин ЭС 621-622 (mit Hinweisen
auf mögliche weitere Entlehnungen oder Parallelen), A&X."

Related, from a blog written by Juho Pystynen, a linguist:

"Most notably, Uralic parallels in eastern Siberia include even basic words for ‘reindeer’, an all-important livelihood animal for many groups these days, especially Chukotkan *qora (whence the ethnonym Koryak), Tungusic ⁽*⁾oron (or probably *xoron, with further diffusion after *x > ∅ in NTg) (whence the ethnonym Oroqen). Kolyma Yukaghir qoroj ‘two-year-old male reindeer’ is usually adduced here too, as well as loanwords further into Siberian Yupik. This has been already identified in earlier research as a Wanderwort originating in Proto-Uralic *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ > Proto-Samoyedic *korå ‘id.; bull reindeer’, which might have already had an allophonic [q-] in Proto-Samoyedic or even earlier. But we seem to lack especially clear evidence on who is to be credited for the original diffusion of this word. Yakut, as far as I know, has no reflex of it, splitting the Eastern Siberian region off from Samoyedic, and thus probably suggesting a pre-Turkic movement eastward. If so, then maybe even already at the time of the original Uralic expansion (which I think must have been partly eastwards too in any case)? Who knows. Maybe someone will eventually though, if we get e.g. some additional toponym data for guidance and keep inter-family comparative research going."

https://protouralic.wordpress.com/

"One of the most commonly accepted hypotheses is that the term is derived from Manchu language: орунчунь (orunchun) meaning "deer people", "deer herders" (cf. pinyin "Èlúnchūn"). "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oroqen_people

EDIT https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchu_people

Where does the "jə"-part in the suggested Proto Uralic form *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ actually come from? BTW according to the Swadesh list of Manchu EDIT the word for "I" is bi, cf. Finnish minä, which is kind of interesting taking into account the fact that the Manchu word for "we" is be, cf. Finnish me.

https://panglossa.fandom.com/wiki/Swades..._languages
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#25
Queequeg:
Quote:“Where does the "jə"-part in the suggested Proto Uralic form *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ actually come from?”

There are both underived cognates from *kojǝ ‘male’ and derived cognates from *kojǝ-ra ‘male animal’:
1. Skolt Saami kuojjă̮ (+Kld T) ’man, husband’ ~ Mansi East χoj, West kuj, North χuj ’male’ ~ Khanty East ku, kuj-, South/North χoj ’male, man’.
2. Finnish koira ‘dog’, koiras ‘male animal’ ~ Komi ki̮r, ki̮r-pon, ki̮re̮s ’male dog’ ~ Mansi South kɛ̮̄r, West kē̮r, North χār ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Khanty East kar, South χor, North χar ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Hungarian here ’drone bee; testicle’ ~ Samoyedic *korå ‘male, male reindeer, stallion, ox, ram’.
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#26
(12-04-2023, 10:41 AM)Jaska Wrote: Queequeg:
Quote:“Where does the "jə"-part in the suggested Proto Uralic form *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ actually come from?”

There are both underived cognates from *kojǝ ‘male’ and derived cognates from *kojǝ-ra ‘male animal’:
1. Skolt Saami kuojjă̮ (+Kld T) ’man, husband’ ~ Mansi East χoj, West kuj, North χuj ’male’ ~ Khanty East ku, kuj-, South/North χoj ’male, man’.
2. Finnish koira ‘dog’, koiras ‘male animal’ ~ Komi ki̮r, ki̮r-pon, ki̮re̮s ’male dog’ ~ Mansi South kɛ̮̄r, West kē̮r, North χār ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Khanty East kar, South χor, North χar ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Hungarian here ’drone bee; testicle’ ~ Samoyedic *korå ‘male, male reindeer, stallion, ox, ram’.

It almost looks like that these are two different words, first one being based on something like https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstru.../xuj%D1%8C and the second one being based on the original Uralic word. Finnish koiras "male animal" admittedly is a bit problematic in this respect.
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#27
(12-04-2023, 11:00 AM)Queequeg Wrote:
(12-04-2023, 10:41 AM)Jaska Wrote: Queequeg:
Quote:“Where does the "jə"-part in the suggested Proto Uralic form *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ actually come from?”

There are both underived cognates from *kojǝ ‘male’ and derived cognates from *kojǝ-ra ‘male animal’:
1. Skolt Saami kuojjă̮ (+Kld T) ’man, husband’ ~ Mansi East χoj, West kuj, North χuj ’male’ ~ Khanty East ku, kuj-, South/North χoj ’male, man’.
2. Finnish koira ‘dog’, koiras ‘male animal’ ~ Komi ki̮r, ki̮r-pon, ki̮re̮s ’male dog’ ~ Mansi South kɛ̮̄r, West kē̮r, North χār ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Khanty East kar, South χor, North χar ’male animal, reindeer ox, stallion’ ~ Hungarian here ’drone bee; testicle’ ~ Samoyedic *korå ‘male, male reindeer, stallion, ox, ram’.

It almost looks like that these are two different words, first one being based on something like https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Reconstru.../xuj%D1%8C and the second one being based on the original Uralic word.  Finnish koiras "male animal" admittedly is a bit problematic in this respect.

Interesting comparison, considering the side-meaning 'penis'. However, Balto-Slavic *sk only gave *x later in Slavic. In principle, an Old Russian/Church Slavic borrowing for Mansi and Khanty could perhaps be within possibilities. Also long *uu --> *uo in Eastern Saami could be possible, too (as well as *x --> *k).

Markus Juutinen has recently handled Russian loanwords in Skolt Saami, but he does not consider this word (see online appendix). 
https://journal.fi/fuf/article/view/110737

Perhaps a possible temporal problem is that in all Eastern Saami languages the word looks old enough to descend from Late Proto-Saami: *uo > *uu in Kildin Saami, > *ïï in Ter Saami, > *uõ in Skolt Saami before *ë. 
https://kaino.kotus.fi/algu/index.php?t=...e_id=47149

But then, geographically Late Proto-Saami was spoken in Southern Finland, closer to the Slavic languages. A very promising find!
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#28
(12-04-2023, 07:20 AM)Queequeg Wrote:
(11-28-2023, 02:14 AM)Queequeg Wrote: Quoting Helimski again: Uralic-Tungusic  "male", in this case a reindeer bull

"Ostj. Kaz. χ¢ r ‚Rentier-Stier’ und nenz. χora > russ. (Sibirien) хор, хóра
‚самец-производитель в оленьем стаде’; ngan. kurii
ia ‚Rentier-Stier’ (Abl. von kuru <
sam. *korå) > ewenk. (SSTMJa. I: 436) kurejka, kurajka, korejka ‘олень (дикий, самец –
весенне-летнее название)’, s. Steinitz, DEWO 536; Аникин ЭС 621-622 (mit Hinweisen
auf mögliche weitere Entlehnungen oder Parallelen), A&X."

Related, from a blog written by Juho Pystynen, a linguist:

"Most notably, Uralic parallels in eastern Siberia include even basic words for ‘reindeer’, an all-important livelihood animal for many groups these days, especially Chukotkan *qora (whence the ethnonym Koryak), Tungusic ⁽*⁾oron (or probably *xoron, with further diffusion after *x > ∅ in NTg) (whence the ethnonym Oroqen). Kolyma Yukaghir qoroj ‘two-year-old male reindeer’ is usually adduced here too, as well as loanwords further into Siberian Yupik. This has been already identified in earlier research as a Wanderwort originating in Proto-Uralic *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ > Proto-Samoyedic *korå ‘id.; bull reindeer’, which might have already had an allophonic [q-] in Proto-Samoyedic or even earlier. But we seem to lack especially clear evidence on who is to be credited for the original diffusion of this word. Yakut, as far as I know, has no reflex of it, splitting the Eastern Siberian region off from Samoyedic, and thus probably suggesting a pre-Turkic movement eastward. If so, then maybe even already at the time of the original Uralic expansion (which I think must have been partly eastwards too in any case)? Who knows. Maybe someone will eventually though, if we get e.g. some additional toponym data for guidance and keep inter-family comparative research going."

https://protouralic.wordpress.com/

"One of the most commonly accepted hypotheses is that the term is derived from Manchu language: орунчунь (orunchun) meaning "deer people", "deer herders" (cf. pinyin "Èlúnchūn"). "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oroqen_people

EDIT https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchu_people

Where does the "jə"-part in the suggested Proto Uralic form *kojəra ‘male [domestic?] animal’ actually come from? BTW according to the Swadesh list of Manchu EDIT the word for "I" is bi, cf. Finnish minä, which is kind of interesting taking into account the fact that the Manchu word for "we" is be, cf. Finnish me.

https://panglossa.fandom.com/wiki/Swades..._languages
When one compares single words from so many different languages simultaneously, one has to wonder also about the possibility of perceived resemblance by random chance.

The Korean language has a word 고라니 korani (alternatively may be romanized as gorani), which refers to one of the most common species of deer (or large wild mammal in general) in Korea: Hydropotes inermis argyropus. Someone might say, "Hydropotes inermis are creepy-looking animals that have large fangs; no one would ever use a word that previously has referred to reindeer to refer to such a creature, nor vice versa," but the fact is that both Rangifer tarandus and Hydropotes inermis are cervids. Furthermore, the Korean language does not have a native word for "reindeer" because those animals are not naturally found so far south as Korea; the Koreans sometimes have used the Ainu > Japanese word tonakai, which may ultimately be Nivkh in origin (possibly altered by the Ainu because of interference from the Ainu adjective tunas "fast, quick, nimble"), and they currently use the Sinitic compound sullok < Chinese 馴 "tame" + Chinese 鹿 "deer" to refer to reindeer. Is the resemblance between Korean korani "water deer, Hydropotes inermis" and the Tungusic words for "(rein)deer" coincidental, or do these words originate from the same etymon?

As for the Manchu personal pronouns, some strong similarities in the personal pronouns of all "Altaic" and Uralic languages have been noted for a long time, and are in fact one of the primary motivations of the Ural-Altaic theory. Besides the first-person plural exclusive pronoun be "we (not including you)" ~ men- "us (not including you)," Manchu also has a pronoun muse "I and thou/you, we/us [inclusive of the person or persons being addressed]," which appears to be originally a compound of bi "I" plus si "thou" or suwe "you (all)" (perhaps with some conjoining element meaning "and" that has subsequently elided). Manchu has bi "I" but also mini "my" (-i is the Manchu genitive case suffix), minde "[dative/locative case] to/at/on/in me," mimbe "[accusative case] me," minci "[ablative case] from me, than I/me." Mongolian also has bi for "I" but miniĭ [миний] for "my"; these two forms are basically identically to their Manchu semantic equivalents, but the remaining forms of the paradigm for the first-person singular pronoun in Mongolian are irregular (dative/locative nadad "to/at/on/in me," accusative namaĭg "me," ablative nadaas "from me," instrumental nadaar "using me," comitative nadtaĭ "[together] with me," directive nadruu "toward me": cf. Korean first-person singular pronoun na and Chinese first-person pronoun *ŋaː > ). The alternation between b and m in the Manchu (as well as Mongolian bi vs. miniĭ) personal pronouns may be ascribable to regressive nasal assimilation, which is a very common phonological process in Siberian languages, if one assumes that the older forms of the first-person pronouns should have had a */b/ in initial position.

In regard to the Uralic *kojǝ vs. *kojǝ-ra problem, one would be remiss not to mention Yukaghir koy "young man, lad; male (in reference to a younger sibling, as opposed to a female younger sibling i.e. little sister: the Yukaghir would say something that literally means 'young.man-younger.sibling' to mean 'little brother,' whereas they would say something that literally means 'young.woman-younger.sibling' to mean 'little sister')." There are also several Ainu words that are vaguely similar (e.g. kur "person," okkay(o) "man, male," (h)oku "husband").
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#29
(12-04-2023, 09:17 PM)Ebizur Wrote: When one compares single words from so many different languages simultaneously, one has to wonder also about the possibility of perceived resemblance by random chance.

Yes, of course you're right. However, even single words with signs of regular sound changes would already make a difference, if we're looking for adstratum/substratum, instead of genetic relationship between languages.
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#30
A short digression.

The major North-Eurasian components according to this calculator:

Code:
EEF,0.116187154,0.182560923,0.003249077,-0.099981231,0.050991615,-0.048119308,-0.003850385,-0.007774846,0.040007923,0.082146538,0.008793923,0.011436077,-0.023797077,6.35385E-05,-0.044860692,-0.010321692,0.024121077,-0.000838154,0.011564154,-0.009398769,-0.015597385,0.006078,-0.004531692,-0.004096846,-0.005775538
WHG,0.130612,0.1112005,0.192897,0.20001875,0.14579625,0.056824,0.01562825,0.03432525,0.081912,-0.00350825,-0.01221975,-0.0175345,0.0237115,-0.00158275,0.047638,0.0614885,0.001532,0.0066195,-0.006128,0.054776,0.0923685,0.010696,-0.0403635,-0.1486655,0.01676475
EHG,0.122929,0.032496667,0.129980667,0.209843333,-0.010668667,0.056800333,-0.019036,-0.023921667,-0.002318,-0.086683333,0.017646,-0.018783333,0.033399,-0.038855667,0.018729,0.029258333,-0.014299,0.003040667,-0.003854667,0.012214,-0.007029333,0.015951,0.010558,-0.020886667,-0.009101
CHG,0.084229,0.1045995,-0.0914515,-0.003876,-0.089863,0.019662,0.0210335,-0.0036925,-0.129975,-0.076995,-0.0051965,0.02248,-0.049058,0.002133,0.029044,-0.0241975,0.029141,-0.0064615,-0.0189175,0.037768,0.0343145,-0.0069245,0.003266,-0.020846,-0.0006585
IRAN,0.045339667,0.065332333,-0.1523565,0.008021167,-0.1233565,0.026913,0.0137875,0.000846167,-0.081639,-0.056797,-0.003545333,-0.0004995,0.0043855,-0.008876833,0.0327765,0.054472333,-0.005346,0.005764333,0.013721833,-0.033578667,0.006883667,-0.029202667,-0.008771333,-0.0370135,0.0206965
SIBERIA,0.0839445,-0.136081,0.0832495,0.15108425,-0.090863,0.02767975,-0.048882,-0.047998,-0.02684375,-0.06496725,0.0302855,-0.00588225,0.0239715,-0.0568725,0.01543825,0.0115355,-0.0144725,0.00272375,0.00399075,0.006128,-0.0354685,0.00995425,0.01996625,0.004097,-0.00805325
AMUR,0.019729333,-0.450895,0.079824,-0.055986667,-0.050060667,-0.045366333,0.013709333,0.010461,0.007294667,0.015004,-0.047092333,0.001698333,0.002329,0.017386667,-0.000724,-0.005303667,-0.005041667,0.000718,0.008966333,0.019967667,-0.00104,-0.026338333,-0.021280667,-0.003253333,-0.019958333
LEVANT,0.0685785,0.17289375,-0.027341,-0.14333225,0.028082,-0.064633,-0.01721475,-0.01407625,0.08094025,0.03603725,0.012504,-0.01618575,0.0353815,0.000688,-0.01347025,0.002917,0.00440025,-0.00456075,-0.006976,0.01572625,-0.00414875,0.005317,-0.002311,-0.00478975,-0.001946
MOROCCO,-0.189857,0.0812424,-0.0233816,-0.085918,0.026897,-0.0562244,-0.0688578,0.0189222,0.1556838,0.0023324,0.0228318,-0.0328806,0.0757278,-0.0494342,0.0694074,-0.035799,0.007719,-0.0649408,-0.1416618,0.0393438,-0.037908,-0.1254826,0.0707936,-0.0144358,0.0191596
CHINA,0.01935,-0.442263,0.0126335,-0.0560405,0.043854,0.0105975,0.003995,-0.000692,0.000102,0.0071075,-0.092724,-0.0129635,0.012859,-0.005849,-0.0065825,0.0005965,0.0022815,-0.00152,-0.002577,-0.005878,0.012041,0.01558,0.0156525,-0.000181,0.006227
INDOCHINA,-0.0034145,-0.334617,-0.0708985,-0.0040375,0.1024805,0.0292835,-0.00893,0.000577,0.015237,-0.006652,0.043601,0.007568,-0.0066895,-0.011216,-0.0050895,0.004243,0.005802,0.0020905,-0.0079815,0.0005,0.0043675,0.0072335,-0.002773,-0.0092785,0.0054485
ASIAN-PACIFIC,0.009675,-0.4087505,-0.0511,-0.0363375,0.1120205,0.040997,-0.00329,-0.00773,-0.009408,-0.0088385,0.0369435,0.002623,-0.0068385,0.0028905,0.007736,0.0082205,0.0024775,0.004434,0.0016345,-0.0116305,0.003743,-0.013911,0.0036975,-0.0134355,-0.0332905
INDIA,0.034147,-0.081242,-0.179887,0.122741,-0.096941,0.068886,0.00094,0.006923,0.035383,0.020228,-0.005034,0.004946,-0.006838,0.007019,0.002172,0.004375,0.007041,0.007348,-0.001383,0.00025,0.004367,-0.008779,-0.000863,-0.001566,-0.007065
SOUTHEAST-ASIA,-0.0381305,-0.216308,-0.1384035,0.1313,0.056626,-0.089942,-0.004935,0.004961,0.037837,0.016219,0.0107175,0.000075,-0.001561,0.0012385,-0.000407,-0.002188,0.0021515,0.0001265,-0.004462,0.0194465,0.0074245,0.0075425,-0.007703,0.0013255,-0.002455
WEST-AFRICA,-0.6038315,0.0573775,0.0139535,0.0272935,-0.00277,0.0027885,0.1236155,-0.0956495,0.0122715,-0.005285,-0.001299,-0.0219555,-0.021184,-0.0037845,0.0023075,0.0005965,0.011278,0.0184965,-0.003331,-0.001876,-0.0028075,0.000618,-0.000801,-0.00241,-0.0034725
EAST-AFRICA,-0.548058,0.051792,0.011125,0.0172805,0.001077,-0.001952,0.143709,-0.1073035,0.0579825,-0.037085,-0.003654,-0.0200075,-0.023563,-0.003303,0.0158795,-0.0101435,0.028489,0.1040115,-0.0267735,-0.0056275,-0.012166,0.0033385,0.001787,-0.004579,-0.0028735
SOUTH-AMERICA,0.050113583,-0.311090528,0.120835611,0.096469333,-0.111858417,-0.019909778,-0.288521306,-0.344466306,-0.010714917,-0.014796444,0.000320361,-0.002056472,-0.001238944,0.02309375,-0.007886694,0.004990528,0.005255028,-0.000355306,0.005474806,0.00577025,-0.001382944,0.004994139,0.000034361,-0.000796556,-0.001284111
CENTRAL-AMERICA,0.04467525,-0.317353,0.1119105,0.09197425,-0.11640625,-0.0169425,-0.2842455,-0.3302745,-0.00869225,-0.014761,-0.00024375,-0.0058075,0,0.02373975,-0.00257875,0.00477325,0.0079535,0.00072825,0.00339375,0.0005315,-0.0020275,0.012087,-0.00221875,-0.000512,-0.00302375
NORTH-AMERICA,0.047426333,-0.307367,0.115273333,0.090655333,-0.104327,-0.015431667,-0.254438333,-0.302141,-0.011658,-0.020228333,0.000541667,-0.00005,0.000099,0.013991667,-0.009862333,0.008486,0.005519333,0.003251667,0.004315333,0.004627667,0.003494,-0.002473,-0.003861667,0.002972,-0.000678667
CANADA,0.052928,-0.3234465,0.1071025,0.080427,-0.1029425,-0.0170125,-0.195294,-0.2371055,-0.005011,-0.016219,-0.004547,0.0020235,0.000223,-0.005161,-0.0077365,-0.003845,0.0009775,0.003674,0.006222,0.0113805,0.0024955,-0.0061825,0.0067785,0.0063865,0.0055085
AUSTRALIA,-0.042115,-0.224432,-0.205154,0.215442,0.145566,-0.322398,-0.007285,0.014538,-0.000818,0.003098,-0.004872,-0.002248,0.004311,-0.001239,-0.008415,-0.000796,0.004694,-0.001774,-0.01169,-0.003377,0.003369,-0.006801,-0.000863,-0.001928,-0.00946
YAMNAYA,0.125837778,0.089253889,0.042907889,0.115455556,-0.027868444,0.044684556,0.004491111,-0.002948667,-0.054857889,-0.072995667,0.001858333,0.000349667,-0.001651778,-0.023609889,0.037262889,0.015734,1.11111E-07,-0.001478,-0.001704,0.012505889,-0.003119667,0.001374,0.011229222,0.018436222,-0.004523667
BSD,0.139782,0.1522635,0.124916,0.0901845,0.1006165,0.0314615,0.0163085,0.0316,0.0371455,-0.004572,0.0012435,-0.0218345,0.039901,0.0662735,-0.0386175,-0.0082235,0.002497,0.0084965,0.00349,0.005984,0.009297,-0.003105,-0.0082725,-0.0721915,0.005406
SOUTH-AFRICA,-0.642816,0.05560025,0.0257385,0.037145,-0.00030775,-0.001743,0.2677945,-0.2073375,0.01083975,0.01603675,0.00755125,-0.06676575,-0.02151875,0.0066745,0.02269925,-0.01962325,0.0339325,0.2934425,-0.0953105,0.00572175,-0.0336595,-0.003215,0.00252625,-0.00159675,-0.00296375
AFRICA-PASTORAL,-0.298975667,0.096137,-0.02489,-0.076874,0.003693,-0.040346333,-0.011985667,-0.004846,0.124895667,-0.082917333,-0.007307667,-0.008492667,-0.005351667,-0.002752333,0.023208333,-0.023645,0.018775333,0.001942333,0.004232,-0.005169333,-0.005865,0.001607667,0.000123333,-0.004619,0.001277333
JAPAN,0.00626025,-0.3442645,-0.05251425,0.0092055,0.0400075,0.00906375,0.00458275,-0.0023655,0.02275325,0.01676575,-0.04802625,-0.00543275,0.00680125,-0.00622725,-0.02110475,-0.01664,0.00384625,0.01108525,0.00521625,-0.008598,0.06869125,-0.048379,0.01007575,0.00774175,-0.0988535
TAIWAN,0.006829,-0.379808,-0.035449,-0.02907,0.119715,0.0502,-0.00094,-0.005769,-0.014112,-0.025695,0.03329,-0.001798,-0.016055,0.012799,-0.005157,0.010209,-0.005607,0.007855,0.00352,0.001376,0.024582,-0.003091,0.014666,-0.004579,-0.015567
KOLYMA,0.042115,-0.33614,0.09164,0.044251,-0.080015,-0.022311,-0.047707,-0.049844,-0.007363,-0.021686,0.00747,-0.007044,0.015907,-0.024497,-0.019815,-0.002784,0.00352,0.010388,0.015587,0.010005,0.003244,-0.021887,0.014543,0.008676,0.009819

The colours on the maps according to the percentages:

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[Image: Q5A1eLS.png]
[Image: 8z8Xnrc.png]
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[Image: 4y7w3x8.png]
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