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E-V22 origins and spread
#1
This thread is dedicated to E-V22: its origins and its spread.

Please contribute to it!

Already in the earlier days- about the definition of E-V22, we see that it's characterized by a tremendous sprawl.

Cruciani (2007), see B:
[Image: Scherm-afbeelding-2024-05-02-om-10-12-04.png]

A few years later member Passa made this map, which underlines the sprawl, a nodus in NE Africa and a spread in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern world:

[Image: Scherm-afbeelding-2024-05-02-om-10-47-50.png]

The last years we see much more samples and much more subclades.  Latest info FTDNA:
[Image: Scherm-afbeelding-2024-05-02-om-10-54-55.png]
https://discover.familytreedna.com/y-dna/E-V22/story


I guess a nice add and absolute essential to get grip on origins and spread is a spreadsheet with an overview of the ancient samples and subclades. I took the model of R1b U106 (I hope they don't mind), please feel free to add and to modify (usually I'm terrible with spreadsheets.....Wink

Thanks in advance, and all other information about the origins and spread is very welcome!

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1...sp=sharing
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#2
Let's ask ChatGPT Wink

"Y-DNA haplogroup E-V22 is a genetic lineage that is primarily found in Africa, particularly in Northeast Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Here's a bit more detail on its origins and spread:

Origins:
1. African Roots: E-V22 is believed to have originated in Africa, with studies suggesting its emergence possibly around 25,000 years ago or earlier. It is one of the branches of haplogroup E, which is one of the two major lineages (the other being haplogroup A) of Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in African populations.

Spread:
1. Northeast Africa: E-V22 is found at relatively high frequencies among populations in Northeast Africa, including in countries such as Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.
2. Horn of Africa: It is also prevalent among various ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa, particularly in regions like Somalia, Djibouti, and parts of Ethiopia.
3. Arabian Peninsula: E-V22 has also been detected in populations of the Arabian Peninsula, especially in Yemen and Oman, indicating some degree of migration and gene flow between Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.

Migration and Historical Context:
1. Ancient Migrations: The spread of E-V22 likely occurred through various population movements and migrations in ancient times. These migrations could have been influenced by factors such as climate change, trade routes, and human interactions.
2. Prehistoric Connections: E-V22's distribution suggests historical connections and interactions between populations in Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These interactions could have been facilitated by trade, pastoralism, or other cultural exchanges.
3. Population Dynamics: Understanding the specific historical events and dynamics that led to the spread of E-V22 requires further research, including genetic studies, archaeological evidence, and anthropological investigations.

Overall, Y-DNA haplogroup E-V22 represents a genetic lineage with deep roots in Africa, particularly in Northeast Africa, and its spread reflects the complex population history of the region, including interactions between populations in Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula over thousands of years."

Needs adds ....(and split 25.000 years ago oops!).
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#3
This subclade ancient Egyptians its very interesting this subclade is spread in South Italy (Sicily) more but unfortunately unknown subclades
I was calculate percentage of Haplogroup E1b1b (M35) in Italy of study (Boettint et at 2013)
This precentage of subclades E-M35 ( Z827 and V68 )
   
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Target: CapsianWGS_scaled
Distance: 1.2510% / 0.01251049
37.2 Iberomaurusian
36.8 Early_European_Farmer
12.8 Early_Levantine_Farmer
8.0 Steppe_Pastoralist
4.8 SSA
0.4 Iran_Neolithic
FTDNA : 91% North Africa +<2% Bedouin + <2  Southern-Levantinfo + <1 Sephardic Jewish + 3% Malta +  3%  Iberian Peninsula
23andME :  100% North Africa

WGS ( Y-DNA and mtDNA)
Y-DNA: E-A30032< A30480 ~1610 CE
mtDNA: V25b 800CE ? ( age mtDNA not accurate )
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#4
For samples ancient i remembered some samples
SFI-12 : from Lebanon
R124  : from Sudan
I6139 : from Sudan
JK288 : from Egypt
BUR002 :from Mongolia
Dewsloth, Qrts, Megalophias And 1 others like this post
Target: CapsianWGS_scaled
Distance: 1.2510% / 0.01251049
37.2 Iberomaurusian
36.8 Early_European_Farmer
12.8 Early_Levantine_Farmer
8.0 Steppe_Pastoralist
4.8 SSA
0.4 Iran_Neolithic
FTDNA : 91% North Africa +<2% Bedouin + <2  Southern-Levantinfo + <1 Sephardic Jewish + 3% Malta +  3%  Iberian Peninsula
23andME :  100% North Africa

WGS ( Y-DNA and mtDNA)
Y-DNA: E-A30032< A30480 ~1610 CE
mtDNA: V25b 800CE ? ( age mtDNA not accurate )
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#5
EV22 at first Nomadic Pastoralist of the Middle East!?

[Image: temp-Imagey4g-IZL.avif]

My basic assumption about the origin of E-V22 is this.

When did it split of from E-Z1919?

Yfull: 95%, 8900-7400 YBP/BCE rounded 8200 YBP/BCE
FTDNA: 98%, 7934-5511 YBP/BC rounded 6650 YBP/BCE.

Big differences of 1600 years. I can't judge who is right, I guess partly because of other samples etc.

I will go for an estimation about: 8000 YBP.

I'm convinced that E-Z1919 was part of the Levantine Neolithic. E-V13 is another split of from E-Z1919 and was most probably part of the Thracian Neolithic (may be Riverman has a more accurat view).

A split of from E-V22 about 8000 BCE will be temporal with the following development.

Wiki:
"During the period of 8500–7500 BC, another hunter-gatherer group, showing clear affinities with the cultures of Egypt (particularly the Outacha retouch technique for working stone) was in Sinai. This Harifian culture[17] may have adopted the use of pottery from the Isnan culture and Helwan culture of Egypt [citation needed] (which lasted from 9000 to 4500 BC), and subsequently fused with elements from the PPNB culture during the climatic crisis of 6000 BC to form what Juris Zarins calls the Syro-Arabian pastoral technocomplex,[18] which saw the spread of the first Nomadic pastoralists in the Ancient Near East. These extended southwards along the Red Sea coast and penetrating the Arabian bifacial cultures, which became progressively more Neolithic and pastoral, and extending north and eastwards, to lay the foundations for the tent-dwelling Martu and Akkadian peoples of Mesopotamia."

My assumption is that E-V22 is congruent with the spread of the first Nomad Pastoralist in the Ancient Near East. And this pastoralist spread from the Southern Levant towards the Nile and to the Arabic Peninsula.
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#6
Spread of E-V22 by Southern Levant Early Pastoralist along the Arabic Peninsula and Northeast Africa.

Along the Nile
Spread along the Egyptian civilization. Pharaoh Ramsesses II who is still under 'verdict' to have E-V22. And we also have Egyptian Mummy 2888  a man who lived between 151 BCE - 23 CE in  Abusir el-Meleq, Egypt. Nowadays Northern Egyptians (Delta) have 14% E-V22 and Egyptians from Bahari (22%) info from Cruciani  (2007).

Most probably an effect of incoming pastoralist: 'In the Nile Valley, the Saharian met and mixed with the descendants of the South Western Asian Neolithic population responsible for the introduction of the Southwest Asian agricultural tradition into the Nile Valley….’ Peter Bellwood (2005).
Allison Smith (2009): ‘The prime Northeast African haplogroup E candidate related to the arrival of farmers and/or pastoralists from the Levant is undated E-M34. E-V12(xV32) and E-V22 may well represent local adaptation.’

Towards the Gulf
The spread on the Arabic Peninsula. Today there is a decent spread along the Gulf. For example the majority of the  UAE M78 representatives belong to the E3b1a3-V22 clade (6.7%).
Again we see here a post likely connection with pastoralist from the Southern Levant. 

M. Redha Bhacker and Bernadette Bhacker:
"Oman's early settlers were Neolithic pastoralists and seafaring people who worked trade routes from Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley. Arrowheads found in Qatar in 1960 by Danish prehistorian Holgar Kapel and ash from ancient campfires found in Muscat in 1983 are the earliest evidence of the nomads who followed their flocks south from the Levant, settling the Arabian peninsula 8,000 years ago. Remains of Neolithic camps found during the past three decades suggest that as Arabia's climate became wetter, these herders thrived, roaming in widely dispersed groups from Syria and Iraq in the north to Dhofar in southern Oman."

Saho Horn of Africa
Spread into the Horn of Africa. The nowadays Saho men of Eritrea have 88% E-V22. They are not  only a representative of a major founder effect of the pastoralist their name means literally pastoralist. 
"The word “Saho” means “nomad,” (“saa” means animals and “hoo” means caretaker), which is also an expression of their previous pastoral way of life."
So E-V22 is  probably rooted along "6000 BC to form what Juris Zarins calls the Syro-Arabian pastoral technocomplex, which saw the spread of the first Nomadic pastoralists in the Ancient Near East." a torch still carried by the Saho!
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#7
Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its interaction with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-BA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).
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#8
(05-02-2024, 11:11 AM)m Capsian20 Wrote: For samples ancient i remembered some samples
SFI-12 : from Lebanon
R124  : from Sudan
I6139 : from Sudan
JK288 : from Egypt
BUR002 :from Mongolia

BUR002's more specific subclade is E-BY7758. Autosomally the individual seems to be a Sogdian or Sogdian-like.
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#9
R9818 from Chhim, Lebanon557-643 CE; E-V22>L1250
R9823 from Chhim, Lebanon; 600-648 CE;  E-V22>L1250
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#10
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-IA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Problem this sample from Ain Ghazal PPNB(I1710) its negative to Z1919 as far i know
Even in FTDNA this sample its E-M78*
But anway E-V22 is subclade is possible originated any place in Egypt
Rodoorn and Qrts like this post
Target: CapsianWGS_scaled
Distance: 1.2510% / 0.01251049
37.2 Iberomaurusian
36.8 Early_European_Farmer
12.8 Early_Levantine_Farmer
8.0 Steppe_Pastoralist
4.8 SSA
0.4 Iran_Neolithic
FTDNA : 91% North Africa +<2% Bedouin + <2  Southern-Levantinfo + <1 Sephardic Jewish + 3% Malta +  3%  Iberian Peninsula
23andME :  100% North Africa

WGS ( Y-DNA and mtDNA)
Y-DNA: E-A30032< A30480 ~1610 CE
mtDNA: V25b 800CE ? ( age mtDNA not accurate )
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#11
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-BA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Very interesting! thanks!
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#12
(05-02-2024, 08:24 PM)Capsian20 Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-IA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Problem this sample from Ain Ghazal PPNB(I1710) its negative to Z1919 as far i know
Even in FTDNA this sample its E-M78*
But anway E-V22 is subclade is possible originated any place in Egypt

The Steppe paper (Lazaridis et al.) re-sequenced the sample, apparently as WGS:

Code:
          I1710_enhanced
I1710
AG83_6 (Ain-Ghazal, child 1, AG 83 3074 043)
petrous
whole-genome analysis
More data from an individual with genome-wide ancient DNA data first reported in LazaridisNature2016
powder/extract first reported in LazaridisNature2016
Direct: IntCal20
9565
63
7741-7522 calBCE (8580±60 BP, Poz-81098)
..
Levant_N
Ain Ghazal (Amman, Sahab)
Jordan
31.988
35.976
1240k,Twist1.4M
11
10
2.528153
593962
M
n/a (no relatives detected)
21.739099
0
70.209488
T1a2
E-Z1919
E1b1b1a1
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#13
(05-02-2024, 08:24 PM)Capsian20 Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-IA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Problem this sample from Ain Ghazal PPNB(I1710) its negative to Z1919 as far i know
Even in FTDNA this sample its E-M78*
But anway E-V22 is subclade is possible originated any place in Egypt

Didn't Qrts state it was a clade before Z1919?

E-V22 is most probably connected to the Southern Levant 

[Image: Scherm-afbeelding-2024-05-02-om-22-30-45.png]

more specific most probably along the early pastoralist from that area:
https://www.routledge.com/Revolutions-in...1629585444
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#14
(05-02-2024, 08:32 PM)Qrts Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:24 PM)Capsian20 Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-IA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Problem this sample from Ain Ghazal PPNB(I1710) its negative to Z1919 as far i know
Even in FTDNA this sample its E-M78*
But anway E-V22 is subclade is possible originated any place in Egypt

The Steppe paper (Lazaridis et al.) re-sequenced the sample, apparently as WGS:

Code:
          I1710_enhanced
I1710
AG83_6 (Ain-Ghazal, child 1, AG 83 3074 043)
petrous
whole-genome analysis
More data from an individual with genome-wide ancient DNA data first reported in LazaridisNature2016
powder/extract first reported in LazaridisNature2016
Direct: IntCal20
9565
63
7741-7522 calBCE (8580±60 BP, Poz-81098)
..
Levant_N
Ain Ghazal (Amman, Sahab)
Jordan
31.988
35.976
1240k,Twist1.4M
11
10
2.528153
593962
M
n/a (no relatives detected)
21.739099
0
70.209488
T1a2
E-Z1919
E1b1b1a1
I was looking in Isogg , E1b1b1a1 is E-M78
   
Target: CapsianWGS_scaled
Distance: 1.2510% / 0.01251049
37.2 Iberomaurusian
36.8 Early_European_Farmer
12.8 Early_Levantine_Farmer
8.0 Steppe_Pastoralist
4.8 SSA
0.4 Iran_Neolithic
FTDNA : 91% North Africa +<2% Bedouin + <2  Southern-Levantinfo + <1 Sephardic Jewish + 3% Malta +  3%  Iberian Peninsula
23andME :  100% North Africa

WGS ( Y-DNA and mtDNA)
Y-DNA: E-A30032< A30480 ~1610 CE
mtDNA: V25b 800CE ? ( age mtDNA not accurate )
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#15
(05-02-2024, 08:32 PM)Qrts Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:24 PM)Capsian20 Wrote:
(05-02-2024, 08:14 PM)Qrts Wrote: Don't forget the Ain Ghazal PPNB individual who turned out to be E-M78>pre-Z1919. I strongly suspect the original homeland of E-Z1919 wasn't far off from that general area, perhaps around lower Egypt or Sinai. Keep in mind that 'ancient Egypt' was evidently the genetic sink, not the source in its relationship with the Levant, so the bulk of E-V22 diversity in the latter region is definitely much older than post-IA movements (even though it ultimately originated in lower Egypt).

Problem this sample from Ain Ghazal PPNB(I1710) its negative to Z1919 as far i know
Even in FTDNA this sample its E-M78*
But anway E-V22 is subclade is possible originated any place in Egypt

The Steppe paper (Lazaridis et al.) re-sequenced the sample, apparently as WGS:

Code:
          I1710_enhanced
I1710
AG83_6 (Ain-Ghazal, child 1, AG 83 3074 043)
petrous
whole-genome analysis
More data from an individual with genome-wide ancient DNA data first reported in LazaridisNature2016
powder/extract first reported in LazaridisNature2016
Direct: IntCal20
9565
63
7741-7522 calBCE (8580±60 BP, Poz-81098)
..
Levant_N
Ain Ghazal (Amman, Sahab)
Jordan
31.988
35.976
1240k,Twist1.4M
11
10
2.528153
593962
M
n/a (no relatives detected)
21.739099
0
70.209488
T1a2
E-Z1919
E1b1b1a1

Clear and we must not forget that E-V13 was also a split off from E-Z1919.  It was most probably an Y-DNA from Levantine farmers (going into Europe) as well as the pastoralist.
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