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E-V13 and the Genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in Italy
#1
Quote:The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily

Abstract

Greek colonisation of South Italy and Sicily (Magna Graecia) was a defining event in European cultural history, although the demographic processes and genetic impacts involved have not been systematically investigated. Here, we combine high-resolution surveys of the variability at the uni-parentally inherited Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in selected samples of putative source and recipient populations with forward-in-time simulations of alternative demographic models to detect signatures of that impact. Using a subset of haplotypes chosen to represent historical sources, we recover a clear signature of Greek ancestry in East Sicily compatible with the settlement from Euboea during the Archaic Period (eighth to fifth century BCE). We inferred moderate sex-bias in the numbers of individuals involved in the colonisation: a few thousand breeding men and a few hundred breeding women were the estimated number of migrants. Last, we demonstrate that studies aimed at quantifying Hellenic genetic flow by the proportion of specific lineages surviving in present-day populations may be misleading.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ejhg2015124#Sec18

This is an old paper from 2015, but it still has some relevance to the E-V13 debate, as it provides additional evidence for the strong connection between Southern Italian E-V13 to Albania and Greece. Additonally, it provides additional data from modern testers.


The following regions being tested, Table 7, for comparison with J-M241, largely but not fully equivalent to J-L283 and I-M253:

Region: E-V13 (J-M241) I-M253

East Siciliy: 8,1 (3,7) 1,6
West Sicily: 4,4 (1,5) 2,9
South Italy: 7,7 (1,7) 1,7
Ionian Italy: 13,6 (0,8) 0,8
North Italy: 9,1 (5,7) 6,8
Central Italy: 5,7 (4,5) 6,8
Corinthia: 25 (4,8) 1
Turkey: 6,8 (0) 2,3
Albania: 38,7 (14) 5,4
Croatia: 5,4 (1,1) 1,1
Euboaea: 17,2 (7,5) 2,2


The data proves in my opinion two things:
a) E-V13 and J-L283 spread largely independent from each other. Where they did overlap, this doesn't point to a particularly close or old relationship
b) The frequencies in Northern Italy point, just like the modern phylogeny does as well, to independent waves of E-V13 migrants reaching Northern and Southern Italy-Sicily.

Also very interesting, that multiple papers prove a kind of lower frequency level in Central Italy, almost similar, even if not that extreme, to the Bavarian gap in the Southern German speaking zone, with higher frequencies all around.

In Italy this being best explained by the above mentioned multipe migration paths into Italy. interestingly, the Northern Italian branches overlap more often with British and German testers (TMRCA usually in the Middle to Roman Iron Age range, 600 BC-100 AD) and the SNP Tracker points to more ancient branches in Northern Italy, than Southern Italy, with nearly all Northern Italian older, more widespread branching falling under E-Z5018 (keep in mind the West bias, most branches of E-V13 being much too strongly pulled to the West - when corrected the endpoints of the ancient distribution nearly all land in what is now Romania):

[Image: SNP-Tracker-Comparison.jpg]
Link: http://scaledinnovation.com/gg/snpTracker.html


Additional quotations from the paper on E-V13:

Quote:When the genetic impact of the Greek Colonisation (GC) has been specifically addressed14, 15 a lineage-based interpretative approach was used, relied on the frequency of the more frequent haplogroups (E-V13) or STR motifs (Balkan Modal Haplotype) in present-day Greeks. However, these approaches can be strongly misleading. Population patterns might not hold when single nucleotide polymorphisms defining finer haplogroup assignments are genotyped. Moreover, it is problematic to treat specific lineages or haplotypes as markers of GC, as these studies have done, because (1) the region where a haplotype is most common today is not necessarily the region where it originated,16, 17 (2) modern population samples from the hypothesised source region may not be a good proxy for ancestral source populations, and (3) present-day patterns might be related to other events that triggered migration along the same route, most notably the Neolithic agricultural revolution or migratory flows during the Bronze Age, the Classical Era and the Christian Era. In addition, previous investigations have not formally tested alternative demographic models to clarify the scale of migration associated with the GC, an issue that has been puzzling demographers for long.


Quote:Previous investigations14, 15 have suggested that the Y chromosome lineage E-V13 is a marker of the Hellenic contribution in the Mediterranean. To test the validity of this approach, we repeated the enrichment test described above by considering only haplotypes belonging to the E-V13 lineage. Given the relatively low frequency of this haplogroup in areas outside the Balkan peninsula, only the East Sicily sample provided a size of NRY haplotypes (N=20) large enough to perform meaningful comparisons. All the 20 E-V13 haplotypes in the sample from East Sicily had matches in the 8–12 mutational range when compared with GC and reference sources. Accordingly, no enrichment in GChps was found except versus Turkey (Fisher's exact test, P<0.01). When haplotype pairs with mismatches of 0–7 steps were removed (F data set), both Croatian and Turkish samples showed an increased relative number of GChps (respectively, 9 and 7) with respect to the other source samples (2 in Albanian and Corinthian samples, 1 in the Euboean sample).
We further explored the impact of haplotypes belonging to specific lineages by calculating the fraction of GChps belonging to the various single nucleotide polymorphism-defined lineages contributing to the overall enrichment (Supplementary Table S9). E-V13 is the major contributor for all the sources excluding Croatia. The contribution of E-V13 in Euboea and Corinthia was much lower than in the three reference sources (range 12.6–17.1 versus 17.5–22.8%). Similarly, we evaluated the contribution of E-V13 GChps in the F data set (Supplementary Table S9). As such, E-V13 haplotypes are no longer the major fraction of GChps and were under-represented in Corinthia (3.4%) and Euboea (1.1%). Figure 4 clearly shows that for these two candidate GC sources the largest quote of E-V13 haplotypes pairs did not fall in the 8–12 but in the 1–4 mutational step interval. Moreover, it demonstrates that only haplotype pairs within the Albania sample reached the highest peak within the 8–12 range.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ejhg2015124#Sec18
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#2
Since the ethnic Albanian Arberesh people were deliberately left out in the above mentioned paper, I looked up their results as well:

Quote:Five haplogroups were found to particularly affect the genetic variability within and between the two Arbereshe groups (Supplementary Figure S1,Supplementary Table S4). The two most frequent HGs in ARB_CAL (E-V13, 16.9%; I-M223, 14.2%) do not match those found in ARB_SIC (I-P215, 20.5%; E-M123, 18.2%). By contrast, the third most frequent HG (R-SRY10831.2) is found at comparatively high frequencies in both Calabrian (9.43%) and Sicilian (11.35%) Arbereshe (Supplementary Table S4).


Quote:Haplotype networks of both E-V13 (Supplementary Figure S3) and I-P215* (Supplementary Figure S4) show fairly compact star-like structures centered around Albanian (mainly Tosk) haplotypes, yet highlighting the differential presence of E-V13 ARB_CAL (77.8%; E-V13α, Supplementary Figure S3) and I-P215 ARB_SIC (85.7%; I-P215α, Supplementary Figure S4) specific clusters. Both of these clusters reveal in their star-like structures signals of recent expansions and their SD-based age estimates (469±118 and 649±170 YBP) are consistent with times of Arbereshe migrations in Sicily and Southern Italy. Non-Arbereshe haplotypes from these clusters were autonomously recognized as ‘outliers’ by the jackknife-like omitting procedure of TMRCA estimation, and excluded from the age calculation.

R-SRY10831.2 haplotype network (Supplementary Figure S5), despite a relatively complex structure, reveals the presence of a shared Arbereshe-specific cluster (R-SRY10831.2α) dating at 556±146 YBP.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ejhg2015138

The Arberesh seem to have been mostly derived from Tosk Albanians, from the South, which, incidently, also have the lower frequency of E-V13 (28,8 %) vs. the Northern Albanian Gheg groups (37,8 %), data from Table S4.

In any case, there is no particularly close relationship of all E-V13 in Southern Italy to Albanians within a recent (post-Late Antiquity) time frame also.
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